Question: “So earth is just some sort of giant Frisbee?”
Kind of. Before you laugh, realize that earth being the shape of a Frisbee is no more humorous than the idea that it is a giant beach ball.
That being said, most of you probably think of the Flat Earth as iconic images like this one:
This is a generalized representation of what the earth would look like if viewed from above (way above). But remember, the Flat Earth is a three dimensional object. The only thing “Flat” about it is the upward facing surface we all live on. And even that is uneven with changing elevation and topography. As a whole, the earth is a three dimensional cylinder. Roughly speaking, it looks like this:
It is comprised of a Proximal (upper) crust, Central (middle) molten layer, and Distal (bottom) crust. The entire structure is held together by an encasing of ice thousands of miles thick.
If it weren’t for the sun, Earth would be completely encapsulated in ice.
The warmth generated by the sun holds back the ice across the habitable surface and generates a dome like atmosphere from the resulting meteorological forces. In Planar Models of the Earth it is important to remember that the sun is smaller and much closer to Earth, and orbits above its surface. The sun’s orbit (as well as the structure of Earth itself) is caused by Universal Acceleration, as well as the Obligate Tendency Towards Downward Motion. The Obligate Tendency is a universal maxim which holds that all unsupported material objects will fall downwards through the void of space, unless acted upon by a force. Universal Acceleration drives the constant upwards motion of the earth. This force is resisted by the Obligate Tendency, making Earth the focal point of constant strain between the two forces. The resulting pressure produces the structure illustrated below:
The sheer strain of these forces pressurizes the molten layer, while the massive amounts of ice in the Outer Encasing holds the molten layer in. Yes, the lava melts through some of the ice, but eventually it causes the molten layer to cool and harden along the outer portions that contact the ice. Complex interaction of these and other forces support the larger geo-structure we call home. While Earth is not a ball, it is definitely not simple either. And understanding its actual form should spur the curiosity of anyone willing to look beyond the curved and twisted horizon of round earth dogma.
If the earth is Flat, then how is it possible to fly across the Pacific to North America, across the Atlantic to Europe, then across Asia back to the Pacific again? ALL IN A STRAIGHT LINE? This would only be possible on a globe, unless we reach the edge of your Flat Earth and teleport to the other side like Pacman…
This is a very common question (yes, even the Pacman part) regarding Flat Earth Theory. Basically, how can one travel in a straight line and end up exactly where they started out? If Earth is Flat, they should have fallen off the edge… However, there is an obvious (though unapparent) answer: navigational equipment.
Compasses and most other navigational equipment are built under the guiding assumption that magnetic north represents a central reference point, the point from which the device orients itself. But as a point of reference, magnetic north could also exist as the center point on a diskoid earth.
In this case, navigational equipment would lead navigators along the earth; not around it. A pilot that sets out from the east coast of North America, heading towards the west coast of Africa, travels in a distinct path along the disk Earth’s surface. He merely thinks that he is traveling part way round a globe. It is important to remember that every worldwide voyage utilizes some sort of navigational aid. Even ancient sailors used the stars. But stars or pieces of equipment each operate in relation to a frame of reference. It is perfectly possible to assume one reference frame and use it to get somewhere, when you are actually using another.
For example, imagine you are preparing a road trip. You program your GPS with a destination. You select “fastest route” because you want to arrive as soon as possible. Keep in mind that “fastest route” represents frame of reference as discussed above. However, when you finish programming your GPS imagine that you accidentally selected “scenic route” but didn’t notice. You go on your trip and get the best views of your life, and arrive at your destination all the same. The only thing that seems off: it’s a bit later than you expected. You navigated believing that you were using a “fast” reference frame. In reality, you traveled along different route and didn’t realize it.
The above analogy describes circumnavigation along the Flat earth. Travelers think they are going one way, when in fact they are traveling in way that is similar but different. Its all about assumptions. The shape of the earth is not the main issue.
And We ALL Fall Down…
Because the inherent tendency of all unsupported objects is downwards motion through the infinite void of space. In Flat Earth Theory this is called: The Obligate Tendency Toward Downwards Motion. All things fall. Its a simple fact, as obvious as 2+2=4. There is no need to describe the physics of our planet in terms of convoluted Newtonian laws. Gravitation does not exist: but the universal tendency to fall does. A concept as obvious as simple math, there is no need (and no possibility) to explain it. Indeed, a concept for which no causal antecedent exists cannot be explained.
The Obligate Tendency Toward Downwards Motion is a fundamental part of the universe, one that acts alongside the Universal Accelerator to produce the observed effects of gravity. Simply put, we stay “glued” to the earth due to the proportionately opposing forces of the UA and Obligate Tendency. When something is unsuspended, it begins to fall due to the Obligate Tendency. The Flat Earth moves up into it, creating the illusory effect of gravity.
Before you laugh at the idea of “down” existing space, stop and think about why you believe there would NOT be a downward direction in space. If the universe is finite, then it must of necessity have a definite limit where “something” ends and “nothing” begins. As a three dimensional space (even if it is expanding like science claims) the universe will always exists as a finite enclosed space, with real boundaries. Within such a space, “down” would obviously exist. It would be absurd for it not to. This shows that the Obligate Tendency is not only consistent with what is directly observed, but with what is generally inferred about the universe as well.
As always, Flat Earth Theory is as strong as ever…
How do navigation systems work if the Earth is Flat?
This is an excellent question that gets asked a lot by proponents of the globe earth model. GPS and other means of navigation are major parts of our everyday life, so how do they work if the Earth is Flat?
Its All About Assumptions
What you assume determines in large part what you believe about reality. The fact that gps happens to work does not mean that the earth is round, gps works despite the fact that the Earth is Flat. Gps is programmed with round earth parameters, and those parameters work on the Flat Earth. Before I explain further, here is a quick and simple description of how the spherists think Gps works:
GPS satellites circle the Earth twice a day in a precise orbit. Each satellite transmits a unique signal and orbital parameters that allow GPS devices to decode and compute the precise location of the satellite. GPS receivers use this information and trilateration to calculate a user’s exact location. Essentially, the GPS receiver measures the distance to each satellite by the amount of time it takes to receive a transmitted signal. With distance measurements from a few more satellites, the receiver can determine a user’s position and display it electronically to measure your running route, map a golf course, find a way home or adventure anywhere.
However, on a Flat Earth the transmission and reception of signals would work just as well across the surface of the Flat plane. Remember, while Earth has topography and changing elevations, it is ultimately one large unobstructed plane. And while signals do not have infinite line of sight (atmospheric density ultimately obstructs them form traveling forever) transmitting any given signal from point A to point B is much easier than round earth believers realize. Also, the dome of Earth’s atmosphere serves as an effective means for bouncing a signal from one point to another, allowing the occurrence of trilateration described in the quote. Lets Use this pic as a reference point:
As the above picture shows, Earth’s atmospheric dome lets signals get sent from one point to another quite easily. There is NO need for supposed satellites orbiting above the Earth. All you need is a good transmitter and a handy receiver. Unfortunately, people will go on believing what they are told, ignorant of other more compelling explanations for the phenomenon they observe.
I will answer this question with a question of my own: why would the crow in the above picture be white when all other crows are black? White crows exist, but they are extremely rare. Most planetary bodies are spherical. According to Flat Earth Theory they are smaller and much closer to the surface of the Earth and orbit above its surface. But this does not entail that ALL planets, including Earth, are spherical as well. As discussed elsewhere on this site, a planetary body with an upward facing surface is alone capable of supporting life as we know it. Any organism that does not directly attach itself to the ground would eventually fall off the bottom of a spherical planet.
The ancient Greek mathematician Eratosthenes measured what he erroneously thought was the circumference of the ball earth.
Using a conceptually genius approach, he calculated the circumference of a spherical earth by measuring a shadow cast in his own city against the fact that no shadow was cast at the same time of day at a well located in a nearby city that was a known distance away. Using these variables, he calculated the circumference of the ball earth:
But his experiment erroneously assumed that the sun is far away and that it emits rays of light in a parallel fashion. However, if the sun is smaller and much closer to earth’s surface, when directly overhead it would cast rays perpendicular to the ground, producing no shadow. For an object a short distance away it would cast light at varying angles, causing a shadow to be cast. This shows that while Eratosthenes exhibited exemplary critical thinking and empirical observation, he failed because he made one major problematic assumption: he assumed that the sun is large and farther from Earth. On a Flat Earth with a small local sun, the same effects would occur as on a ball earth. If you are interested in how Eratosthenes actually performed this experiment then check out this (spherist) video by Carl Sagan…
Eratosthenes shows us that all measurements of physical reality are strongly impacted by the assumptions we start out with. That being said, what are the surface dimensions of the Flat Earth?
The surface area of the spherical earth, 196.9 million miles squared, serves as an approximate model for determining the entire surface area of the Flat Earth. Like Eratosthenes, some spherist measurements are usable, even though spherists themselves based the data on incorrect assumptions. An equatorial measure of the circumference (Fig 1) carves out a portion of the Flat Earth that is about half its total surface area, or 98.45 million miles squared. Multiplying the equatorial circumference by a value slightly larger than double (say, 2.2) gives us a total circumference as bounded by the ice ring of 98.45miles x 2.2 = 54,782.2mile (Fig 2).
From here, it is easy to find the diameter of the Flat Earth (As Bound by The Ice Ring) using the equation for the diameter of a circle where the circumference is known: C=兀(d). Substituting our values we get: 54,782.2mi = (3.14)(d). Performing some simple math (divide both sides by 3.14) yields a diameter of: 17,446.6mi (Fig 3). The ice ring itself extends outward to an known distance of many thousands of miles. We will need to wait for the day when real research can be conducted to fully understand the full surface area of the Flat Earth…
As these numbers show, the diameter of the Flat Earth (as bound by the ice ring) is significantly larger than the supposed diameter of the ball earth. Keep in mind that these numbers represent educated estimates. Also, the picture used here of the Flat Earth shows a distorted view of S America, Africa, and Australia. These landmasses are not so large as the picture implies. Pictures produced by NASA also tend to be distorted as well as photoshopped. The above picture is only meant to serve as a visual approximation…
Flat Earth Theory (FET) does not pretend to fully understand physical realities that have not been directly observed. That being said, the Flat Earth does possess a certain size and shape. The most widespread assumption holds that Earth is a cylindrical planetary body with a Flat, upwards facing surface upon which humanity resides. Sperists measures of the ball Earth place its radius at 4000miles. And as this graphic suggests, even mainstream science admits that knowledge of Earth’s interior is foggy at best:
That being said, Flat Earth Theory can offer an educated (though empirically uninformed) guess regarding the dimensions of the Flat Earth. Lets start with the dimensions of the surface. While spherist measurements of Earth’s interior commit glaring errors, the measurements themselves represent data that Flat Earth Theorists can utilize with cautionary assumptions in mind. (Please remember that science itself is a corrupted methodology, and that any data appropriated must be done so with caution
). It is a common fact of empirical observation that earth contains a supper heated molten interior, as evidenced by volcanoes and other geothermic activity. A significant and sizable outer crust necessarily exists in order to hold back such volatile fluids. The molten layer must therefore be sandwiched between two significantly thick layers of crust. As mentioned, spherist measurements place the radius of Earth at approximately 4000 miles
Taking the above measurement as a tentative starting point, an educated estimate of the Flat Earth’s proximal (upper; above the molten layer) crust places it at approximately 4000-6000 miles in thickness. The molten layer likely extends anywhere from 1000-2000 miles in depth. The thickness of the Flat Earth’s distal (lower; below the molten layer) crust likely corresponds to the thickness of the proximal crust, ranging between 4000-6000 miles. This places the Flat Earth’s entire thickness from top to bottom anywhere from 9,000-14,000 in length. Please note that these are only estimates, and that the spherist data appropriated is suspect. However, short of digging through the Earth itself, empirical descriptions of the Earth’s interior (Flat or spherical) will remain subjective at best…
So what is at the bottom of the Flat Earth?
The bottom of the Flat Earth almost certainly consists of the same material composing the upward facing surface. (Remember, contrary to spherist belief there is no reason to assume that up or down does not exist in space. If the universe is finite, thus space almost certainly contains a downward direction towards which all unsupported objects would tend to fall toward). As any material loosely adhering to the bottom of the Flat Earth would have fallen off long ago, the bottom likely displays a coarse surface composed of rock and ice, possibly taking the form of icicles and stalactites. The roof of a cave could resemble the bottom of the Earth, but on a much larger scale…
The above gif illustrates the day/night cycles of the sun. The sun, moon, stars, and planetary bodies are all much smaller and much closer to the surface of the earth. Unlike the earth, they are spherical. The sun does not emit light equally in all directions, but acts more like a spot light as seen above. This is due to an effect I call Variable Luminosity: the sun does not necessarily consist of super heated gases (we wont know for sure until real space travel happens), and only certain portions of its spherical face actively emit light. Locked in a circular orbit above the surface of the earth, the downward facing portion of the sun’s sphere actively produces light creating its characteristic “spotlight” effect. “But Why Cant We See The Sun At All Times If What You Claim Is True? At Best Earth Would Only Experience Perpetual Twilight. We Can See The Sun Set On The Horizon!” A question I see a lot, this objection forgets an important fact already mentioned: the sun is much smaller and much closer to the Earth’s surface. As it moves over the disk of the Earth it recedes from view, much like if you watched a receding car vanish into a horizon like this one:
Can you see the light of a flashlight being directed at you from 20 miles away? Of course not: perspective and atmospheric density combine to obscure its light from view. The same principles are at work when the sun recedes from view, appearing to “set” on the horizon.
“Ok, So What About The Seasons?”
The model for Earth’s seasonality is actually quite elegant. Keeping in mind the above gif as an example of the sun’s daily motion, consider this illustration:
As this image shows, the seasons are caused by an annual expansion and contraction of the sun’s orbit above the disk of the earth. During summer in the northern hemisphere (I use the word “hemisphere” merely for clarity’s sake) the suns orbit is at its most contracted point. The gradual transition from summer to winter in the north corresponds to the sun’s steady, outward orbital expansion. Once the sun’s orbit it at its widest, the southern hemisphere experiences summer. This makes more sense than an axial “tilt” taking place on a spherical earth: such a change would necessarily cause noticeable physical effects such as a directional change in the flow of rivers. This is not the case. Explaining the seasons using the Flat Earth model represents a more coherent synthesis of empirically demonstrable phenomena…